Exam 1 Review:  Chapter 1:  General Terms & General Anatomical Terms

anatomy - The science or the biological study of the shape and structure of organisms and their parts, molecules, cells, tissues, organs and organ systems.

gross anatomy - The biological study of the organs, parts, and structures of a body that are visible to the naked eye.

physiology - The biological study of the functions of living organisms and their parts, molecules, cells, tissues, organs and organ systems.

cell - The smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable of independent functioning, consisting of one or more nuclei, cytoplasm, and various organelles, all surrounded by a semipermeable cell membrane.

cell physiology - The biological study of the functions of living cells, the functions of their organelles, and all biochemical aspects of cell metabolism.

organelle - A differentiated structure within a cell, such as a mitochondrion, vacuole, or chloroplast, that performs a specific function; many are membrane bound and thus separate internal compartments which help separate different biochemical reactions by placing them in different sublocations within the cell.

tissue - An organized collection of two or more different cell types and associated intercellular matrix acting together to perform one or more specific functions in the body. There are two basic types of tissue: epithelial and connective, but many specific types: epidermal, bone, muscle, gland, nervous, etc.

cytology -The branch of biology that deals with the formation, structure, and function of cells, with an emphasis on the internal appearance and structure of cells, and their organelles, especially the nucleus; in clinical practice, most often applied in the detection of cancer cells.

histology = microscopic anatomy = microanatomy - The anatomical study of the microscopic structure of animal and plant tissues with emphasis on which cellular and intercellular structures distinguish one tissue from another; many chemical stains have been developed to assist in visualizing these internal cellular structures.

organ - A differentiated part of an organism, composed of two or more cooperating tissues, such as an eye, intestine, or heart, that performs a specific function.

regional anatomy - The study of the organs, parts, and structures of a specific region of the body, e.g., cranial anatomy, anatomy of the hand, etc.

organ system - A group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent organs forming a complex functional whole; the set of organs of the body regarded as a functional physiological unit..

systemic anatomy - The study of the structure and location of body parts, system by system; the study of specific organs, parts, and structures of a specific organ system of the body, e.g., nervous system anatomy, reproductive anatomy, skeletal anatomy.

neurophysiology - The branch of physiology that deals with the functions of the nervous system, and related disorders.

endocrinology - The branch of physiology that deals with the study of the glands, including the exocrine (duct system) glands, and their secretions (e.g., digestive juices, sweat, hormones), but especially the endocrine (ductless) glands, and their secretions (hormones, e.g., insulin, glucagon, thyroxine, estrogens, androgens, etc.) and the physiological processes they regulate, and related disorders of the glands.

embryology - The branch of biology that deals with the formation, embryonic structure, early growth, and development of living organisms.

pathological anatomy - The branch of anatomy that deals with the study of the structural changes associated with or resulting from disease or injury.

pathophysiology - The branch of physiology that deals with the study of the functional changes associated with or resulting from disease or injury.

anatomical position - The standard anatomical reference point is the body position in which the trunk is erect or straight with the arms and feet slightly apart with palms facing forward and the thumbs pointing away from the body; this standard body position allows all directional terms to be assigned in an unambiguous way.

body plane - An imaginary flat surface that divides the body or a part of the body into two parts; the standard perspectives for such sections in anatomical imaging are the sagittal, frontal, and transverse (cross) sections.

umbilicus = navel - The scientific term for the depression, or mark, in the median/midsaggital line of the abdomen, which indicates the point where the umbilical cord, which housed the blood vessels connecting the fetus to the placenta in the uterus, was separated from the fetus immediately after birth; nickname - belly button.

FYI:  navel piercing - Body piercing and tattooing for personal adornment are ancient practices.  In the case of the navel, the fact is that the true navel should not be pierced. In most cases the safe navel piercing is through the upper rim of the navel. Piercing the actual navel carries a high risk - an infection following the piercing of the actual navel may permit the microbes to travel inward to the liver or peritoneum.

Navel piercing can be a hassle for pregnant women because it becomes uncomfortable at the very end of pregnancy, as their abdomens get stiffly stretched causing a pulling sensation. In most cases their practitioner suggests the removal of navel piercing jewelry.

Navel piercing causes pain similar to earlobe or nostril piercing but afterwards it will make causes some additional discomfort.  Post-procedure, for few days one may have to wear loose-fitted clothing, have difficulty bending over or sitting or leaning forward against objects.  It is advisable to wear titanium, stainless steel or niobium jewelry in the early days after piercing, as these metals promote less infection.

Remember, always go to a physician or licensed piercer for your piercing and schedule an appointment when your calendar is clear from all stretchy or strenuous physical activities like dance parties, yoga classes or any sports. Do not try this at home because by doing this you can risk your health.  It may take six months for a navel piercing to be fully healed.

After getting your belly-button pierced by well-apprenticed piercer - the next step is to maintain a strict aftercare regime.

Finally, there is another option to avoid so many dos and donts–wear a fake belly button jewels and still be cool. :lol:

For more about complications of body piercing, read the article by Dr. Donna Meltzer in the American Family Physician.  Dr. T. does not recommend piercing!
Dr. T. does not recommend the acquisition of tattoos either.  For current information about tattoo removal, read Tattoo Removal Comes of Age.

all directional terms [see table 1.1, p. 13]
all body sections/planes [see figure 1.8, p. 16]
all abdominopelvic regions [see figure 1.11, p. 19]
body cavity terms [see figure 1.9, p. 16] 

List:

1.  three subdivisions each of anatomy and physiology.

anatomy: gross anatomy, systemic anatomy, cytology, histology, embryology, pathological anatomy, etc.
physiology:  cell physiology, neurophysiology, endocrinology, pathophysiology, etc.

2. six levels of biological organization in the correct sequence from smallest to largest.

     chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal

7. three body planes.

    (1)  median = midsaggital [just saggital when not on the midline], (2) frontal,  (3) transverse = cross

10. two examples of a structure whose function is determined by its location.

     hair, tooth, skeletal muscle, bone, joint, blood vessel

12. six levels of structural complexity in a human being in the correct order from smallest to largest.

    chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal

13. List the names of the major organs comprising [any one of the eleven] organ systems of the body.  [see figure 1.3, pp. 6-7]

Organ System Major Organs
Integumentary skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous (oil) glands
Skeletal bones, cartilages, joints, ligaments, red marrow
Muscular muscles, tendons, bursae
Nervous brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, peripheral ganglia
Endocrine pineal gland, pituitary gland, thymus, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands (cortex & medulla), pancreas (islets), gonads
Cardiovascular heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries)
Lymphatic & Immune red marrow, thymus, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen
Respiratory nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and subdivisions of the respiratory tree, lungs
Digestive oral cavity, teeth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, large intestine, appendix, rectum
Urinary kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
Male Reproductive testes, scrotum, ductus deferens, prostate gland, urethra, penis
Female Reproductive ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands

Sketch and label:

2.  an illustration of directional terms.

     See all directional terms [see table 1.1, p. 13]

3. an illustration of body sections/planes.

    [see figure 1.8, p. 16]

Describe:

2. the location of [any one of the eleven] organ systems of the body using correct anatomical terminology.

Organ System Location
Integumentary external body surface
Skeletal trunk, head, limbs
Muscular trunk, head, limbs
Nervous dorsal body cavity (brain, spinal cord), trunk, head, limbs (peripheral nerves, peripheral ganglia)
Endocrine cranial cavity (pineal gland, pituitary gland), mediastinum (thymus), neck (thyroid gland, parathyroid glands), abdominal cavity (adrenal glands (cortex & medulla), pancreas (islets)), pelvic cavity (ovaries), scrotum (testes)
Cardiovascular pericardial cavity (heart), trunk, head, limbs (blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries))
Lymphatic & Immune marrow cavity of bones (red marrow), mediastinum (thymus), trunk, head, limbs (lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes), abdominal cavity (spleen)
Respiratory head (nasal cavity, pharynx), neck (larynx), mediastinum (trachea), thoracic cavity/pleural cavities (bronchi and subdivisions of the respiratory tree, lungs)
Digestive head (oral cavity, teeth, tongue, pharynx), mediastinum (esophagus), abdominal cavity (stomach, small intestine, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, large intestine, appendix, rectum)
Urinary abdominal cavity (kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra)
Male Reproductive scrotal sac (testes, scrotum, ductus deferens), pelvic cavity (prostate gland), urethra, external body surface (penis)
Female Reproductive pelvic cavity (ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina), external body surface, anterior thoracic wall (mammary glands)


3. the function of [any one of the eleven] organ systems of the body using correct terminology.

Organ System Function(s)
Integumentary protection, thermoregulation, communication, Vitamin D synthesis
Skeletal protection, support, movement, hematopoiesis, mineral storage
Muscular support, movement (posture, locomotion, facial expression, communication), thermogenesis
Nervous fast response control of most body processes
Endocrine slow response control of most body processes
Cardiovascular internal transport system for nutrients, wastes, respiratory gases, regulatory molecules
Lymphatic & Immune contributes to fluid distribution within fluid compartments of the body, phagocytosis, non-specific and specific defenses against foreign materials and organisms, defense against tumors (cancer)
Respiratory external transport system for respiratory gases to and from lungs, oxygenation of blood, acid-base regulation
Digestive mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into nutrients, absorption of nutrients, elimination of indigestible components of food
Urinary removal of nitrogenous wastes and surplus electrolytes and small soluble organic waste molecules, acid-base and internal fluid volume regulation
Male Reproductive contribute sperm for fertilization of ovum to produce new organism; support secondary sexual characteristics and reproductive behaviors
Female Reproductive contribute ovum for fertilization by sperm to produce new organism; support secondary sexual characteristics and reproductive behaviors; provide physiological support for internal development of fetus, for labor and delivery, and additional nutritional and immune support for newborn by lactation