Exam 3 Review:  Chapter 09:  Gross Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle

subcutaneous - Located or placed just beneath the skin, usually within the dermis.

fascia - A gross anatomical term for the layers of dense fibrous connective tissue which cover and connect skeletal muscles and form the boundaries which define specific muscles and groups.

superficial fascia = hypodermis - The thin layer of loose adipose tissue underlying the dermis of the skin and binding the skin to the parts beneath, e.g., muscle or bone. 

deep fascia - The layer of dense fibrous connective tissue (fascia) which wraps and binds together muscles in muscle groups and also binds together other internal structures.

epimysium - The protective external sheath of dense irregular fibrous connective tissue surrounding a skeletal muscle; it is continuous with the fascia external to the muscle and with the perimysium surrounding the fascicles within the muscle.

perimysium - The protective external sheath of dense irregular fibrous connective tissue surrounding each fascicle (bundle) of a skeletal muscle; it is continuous with the epimysium surrounding the entire muscle and with the endomysium surrounding each muscle fiber/cell within the muscle.

endomysium - The protective external sheath of loose irregular fibrous connective tissue surrounding each skeletal muscle fiber/cell; it is continuous with the perimysium surrounding each fascicle (bundle) of the muscle and contains the main capillary blood supply for each muscle fiber/cell within the muscle.

fascicle = fasciculus - A bundle of anatomical fibers, as of a muscle or a nerve; each fascicle is bounded by a thin wrapping of irregular fibrous connective tissue.

(muscle) fiber = myofiber - The general name for the individual contractile cells in all types of muscle tissue.

tendon - A band, strap or cord of tough, inelastic dense regular fibrous connective tissue which connects a muscle with its bony attachment or to whatever other structure the muscle moves, e.g., a portion of skin, the eyeball, etc.

aponeurosis - A visible sheet or membrane of tough, inelastic dense regular fibrous connective, which may serve as a layer of fascia to bind muscles together or as an indirect attachment connecting muscle to bone, serving as a flattened alternative to a tendon.

tendon sheath - Any tube-like connective tissue cavity lined with a synovial membrane that secretes a viscous lubricating synovial fluid, covering regions of tendons at  points of friction between moving structures.


 

 Describe: (or you may sketch and label)

1. The connective tissue components of a muscle.


 

2. The difference between superficial versus deep fascia.

                    superficial fascia covers the superficial surfaces of muscle groups and usually lies directly deep to the hypodermis and the skin

                    deep fascia separates various muscle groups from each other or from bone or other deeper structures such as the parietal linings of body cavities, separates individual muscles, tendons, or ligaments within a muscle group, separates branching nerves, vessels, or ducts in a group, or connects organs to one another in deep tissues other than body cavities

3. The difference between a tendon and an aponeurosis.

                    tendon:  a strap or cord of dense regular fibrous connective tissue connecting a muscle to a bone

                    aponeurosis:  a thin, flat sheet of dense irregular fibrous connective tissue connecting a muscle to a bone